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- Woodworker’s Theory and Practice N1 Lecturer Guide
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TPACK AND HOW IT CAN HELP YOU!
Have you heard of TPACK and how it can assist you in creating an exciting, innovative learning zone? TPACK is an acronym for Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge. It is a framework that describes the different kinds of knowledge a lecturer can make use of, and shows the intricate interplay between the different knowledge fields.
The image below shows the TPACK framework, with each of the kinds of knowledge indicated.
Figure 1 The TPACK framework
Image source: http://tpack.org
Reproduced by permission of the publisher, © 2012 by tpack.org
The seven kinds of knowledge are:
- Pedagogical knowledge;
- Content knowledge;
- Technological knowledge;
- Pedagogical content knowledge;
- Technological content knowledge;
- Technological pedagogical knowledge; and
- Technological, pedagogical and content knowledge
Pedagogy is defined as the “art, science, or profession of teaching”. Pedagogical knowledge (PK) is therefore the knowledge of not only how to teach, but how to teach effectively.
Being a lecturer means that you have mastered at least the very basics of pedagogy. A lecturer with a strong PK is a master of classroom strategies, applying different learning theory, using various techniques and grading practices.
Content knowledge (CK) refers to the knowledge of the content that is taught and learned. This would be the curriculum that you are teaching. It includes facts, concepts, principles and theories. A lecturer with a strong CK is a master of the content in the subject area, earning the designation “highly qualified” .
Technological knowledge (TK) refers to the knowledge of different technologies, their benefits and disadvantages, as well as the best practices of using these technologies to engage students in the subject content.
A lecturer with a strong TK is a master of information technologies and is able to support the use of these technologies by both students and colleagues. The lecturer may even be referred to as a “techie”!
Pedagogical content knowledge
In 1986, Lee Shulman suggested Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) as a third major knowledge that lecturers need to possess in addition to PK and CK.
Shulman’s framework laid the foundation for the development of the TPACK framework. Lecturers that have a strong PCK have mastered their classrooms with strong content and good application of learning theory, but still utilise primarily a paper-based system.
Education that incorporates PCK is good, but it is dated. It is the way that students have been taught for hundreds of years as it makes no use of current technology to engage or motivate students or stimulate constructive research and debate.
Technological content knowledge
When a lecturer has technological content knowledge (TCK) the lecturer uses technology to enhance the exploration of content, but an essential ingredient for education is lacking: learning theory is minimal or not present at all.
This kind of learning is modern, but without sound pedagogy is limited. Content presented with almost no thought of the best way for it to be presented to students is not going to add real value. Teaching and learning here is innovative and relevant, but it will leave some students behind.
Technological pedagogical knowledge
Technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK) refers to the use of technology in the classroom to stimulate thinking and engagement, but the activities stray away from the essential learning that needs to take place.
This could be a lecturer who makes use of Apps on a tablet that do not properly relate back to the curriculum for example..
When technology and pedagogy are used to educate, learning is exciting but disconnected from the content that needs to be taught. There is high engagement in the classroom, but the engagement and the learning is off-target.
Technological pedagogical content knowledge
Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) is the knowledge space where all the other knowledge intersects. It is the sweet spot of learning where both lecturer and student are building knowledge, engagement, motivation and stimulation and where optimal learning takes place.
When a TPACK lecturing and learning moment happens, the classroom becomes a masterful 21st century classroom focussed on essential learning (CK), by applying good learning theory (PK) that is supported and enhanced by technology (TK). The content and skills are learned through a variety of activities that make powerful use of technology.
To read more about TPACK, visit http://tpack.org.